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Buffalo is the second most populous city in the state of New York, after New York City. It is located in Western New York at the confluence of the Allegheny River and Buffalo Creek, approximately 50 miles (80 km) south of Niagara Falls. As of 2019, Buffalo had a population of 258,612 people. The metropolitan area has a population of 1,136,856 people.

The city is the county seat of Erie County and the principal city of the Buffalo–Niagara Falls metropolitan area, the largest in Upstate New York. As of 2018, Buffalo ranked as the 32nd most populous city in the United States.

Buffalo has been a major stop on the Underground Railroad and a point of immigration for Haitians, Germans, Irish, Italians, Jews, Native Americans, Poles, Puerto Ricans, and African-Americans. The city is also home to the Buffalo Niagara Medical Campus.

The name "Buffalo" is derived from the French beau fleuve, meaning "beautiful river". The city is situated on the eastern shore of Lake Erie, at the head of the Niagara River, which flows northward over Niagara Falls into Ontario, Canada.

The Niagara River forms Buffalo Harbor and is the main channel of navigation for the Great Lakes. The Buffalo Creek confluence is located just east of the city.

The city of Buffalo has a complex history, with both Native American and European roots. The original inhabitants of the area were the Erie people, a Native American tribe who lived along the southern shore of Lake Erie prior to the arrival of Europeans in the 17th century.

The French explorer La Salle is credited with naming the region "Buffalo" after the American bison he saw in the area while traveling down the Niagara River. The city of Buffalo was founded in 1832 by French-Canadian immigrants.

The Irish and Germans were the next largest groups to settle in Buffalo. By 1855, they made up about one-third of the city's population. The Italians began arriving in large numbers in the late 19th century and by 1900, they made up the largest immigrant group in Buffalo.

The city has a long history of immigration, with many different ethnic groups calling Buffalo home over the years. This diversity is reflected in the city's food, art, and culture.

Buffalo is also known for its architecture. The city's skyline is dominated by Art Deco and Beaux-Arts buildings, as well as several mid-century modernist structures.

Buffalo is home to a number of professional sports teams, including the Buffalo Bills of the National Football League (NFL) and the Buffalo Sabres of the National Hockey League (NHL). The city also has a rich sporting history, hosting the Buffalo Marathon, the oldest continuously running marathon in the United States, since 1927.

Buffalo is a vibrant and welcoming city with a rich history and culture. Whether you're interested in its food, art, architecture, or sports teams, there's something for everyone in Buffalo.